The land area comprises only a third of the land area (29%), while the remaining two thirds are occupied by the waters and ocean waters (71%). In general, there is a preponderance of the solid mass on the liquid in the Northern Hemisphere, while in the Southern Hemisphere the figure is reversed. The concentration of the land area is evident when limited to a circle almost the entire continental brand, separating the so-called Hemisphere Hemisphere Continental Maritime. For geographical and historical, traditionally, have divided the land area in seven parts:
Europe and Asia up in reality a solid landmass, called Eurasia. But Europe is studied as a separate continent, and that because of its historical-cultural evolution, which has given a leadership position in the history of mankind. Its highest peak is Mount Elbrus.
Africa (which until 1869 was linked to Asia by the Isthmus of Suez, before opening the channel of the same name) is also very close to Europe, separated from it only by the Strait of Gibraltar (15 km).
Pacific, however, is characterized by the dispersion of their lands, as it is composed of numerous islands, scattered over the Pacific Ocean, of different origin, size and geographic location. Among its highlights land Australia, too large to be considered an island, some scholars classified as a continent. Its major peaks are Mount Kosciusko and Carstensz Pyramid.
Antarctica is the continent that is almost entirely within the Antarctic Circle, and weather conditions which kept covered with a thick layer of ice, lack of fauna and flora except in the coast and the sea surrounding it. The highest peak is Mount Vinson.
The configuration of climates on the continents is the result of a complex interplay between several factors, such as latitude, topography and proximity to the sea, which determine the distribution and intensity of weather (temperature, wind and rainfall). Thus we see that the areas are on Ecuador, close to sea level, enjoy a hot and humid climate, but at the same latitude, on the Ecuadorian Andes and on Kilimanjaro or the Carstensz Pyramid, there is snow permanent.
The sea temperature is a moderator, but its proximity can be positive, as the action of the warm Gulf Stream to the Norwegian coast, or negative, as the cold Labrador Current to the North American coasts. High climatic ranges are real barriers to keep out the wet winds, such as the Andes or the Himalayas. The lack of rain causes desert climates, usually located at the latitude of the tropics (Sahara, Kalahari, etc.). The vegetation is closely linked to climatic regions, although the action of man has changed its natural development and altered the distribution of plant species on the surface of the Earth.